Journal of Ayurveda and Holistic Medicine (JAHM) <p>The <strong>Journal of Ayurveda and Holistic Medicine (JAHM)</strong> stands as a beacon within the realm of holistic healthcare, dedicated to fostering a profound understanding and appreciation of Ayurveda, an ancient system of medicine rooted in the Indian subcontinent. JAHM serves as a vital conduit for intellectual discourse, scientific inquiry, and the advancement of Ayurvedic knowledge in contemporary health systems.</p> <p>At its core, JAHM encapsulates a multifaceted approach to promoting Ayurveda. It provides a platform for scholars, researchers, and practitioners to explore and elucidate the fundamental principles of Ayurveda. Through insightful articles and scholarly discourse, the journal delves into the intricate concepts of doshas, gunas, dhatus, and the holistic approach to health and wellness that underpins Ayurvedic philosophy.</p> <p>JAHM is committed to advocating evidence-based clinical practice within the Ayurvedic community. By showcasing research studies, clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, the journal empowers practitioners with the latest evidence on the efficacy, safety, and applicability of Ayurvedic interventions across various health conditions. This emphasis on evidence-based practice not only enhances the credibility of Ayurveda but also ensures the delivery of optimal healthcare outcomes for patients.</p> <p>Furthermore, JAHM plays a pivotal role in nurturing a robust research culture among Ayurvedic scholars and practitioners. By providing a prestigious platform for the publication of original research, the journal encourages innovation, collaboration, and the dissemination of new insights within the Ayurvedic community. From herbal medicines to lifestyle interventions, from preventive healthcare strategies to therapeutic modalities, JAHM showcases diverse research endeavors that contribute to the evolution and refinement of Ayurvedic practice.</p> <p>In addition to its scholarly pursuits, JAHM also serves as a bridge between tradition and modernity in Ayurveda. The journal appreciates and supports efforts to modernize Ayurvedic pharmaceutics, enhance quality control standards, and innovate in clinical practice. Through its publication of research on new instruments, formulations, and quality assurance techniques, JAHM celebrates the ongoing evolution and relevance of Ayurveda in today's healthcare landscape.</p> <p><strong>The content of the Journal of Ayurveda and Holistic Medicine (JAHM) is meticulously curated to encompass three overarching themes, each vital in its own right for the advancement and enrichment of Ayurvedic knowledge and practice:</strong></p> <ol> <li> <p><strong>Theoretical Research</strong>: JAHM dedicates significant space to scholarly inquiry into the theoretical foundations of Ayurveda, as well as its intersections with other disciplines such as yoga, modern medicine, and scientific paradigms. Articles within this theme delve into fundamental concepts, historical perspectives, and literary analyses that deepen our understanding of Ayurvedic philosophy and its relevance in contemporary contexts. By exploring the historical evolution and philosophical underpinnings of Ayurveda, JAHM seeks to foster a comprehensive appreciation of this ancient healing tradition.</p> </li> <li> <p><strong>Experimental Research</strong>: A cornerstone of JAHM's content lies in experimental research, which encompasses a broad spectrum of scientific investigations aimed at advancing our understanding of Ayurvedic pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaceutical chemistry, and pharmaceutics. This theme encompasses studies on phytochemistry, drug discovery, and development, with a particular emphasis on herbal, herbo-mineral, and mineral formulations. By rigorously evaluating the bioactivity, safety, and efficacy of Ayurvedic remedies through experimental methodologies, JAHM contributes to the evidence base supporting their use in clinical practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><strong>Clinical Research</strong>: JAHM serves as a vital repository for clinical research findings that elucidate the practical application of Ayurvedic principles in healthcare settings. This theme encompasses a wide array of study designs, including clinical trials, case reports, case series, cohort and case-control studies, as well as epidemiological and public health investigations. By documenting clinical outcomes, therapeutic approaches, and patient experiences, JAHM facilitates the integration of evidence-based Ayurvedic interventions into mainstream healthcare practices, thereby enhancing the quality of patient care and expanding the scope of Ayurveda within the broader medical landscape.</p> </li> </ol> Atreya Ayurveda Publications en-US Journal of Ayurveda and Holistic Medicine (JAHM) 2321-1563 <p>The author(s) will retain copyright and permit the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that permits others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the author and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>The entire contents of the JAHM are protected under Indian and international copyrights. The Journal, however, allows free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, perform and display the work publicly and to make and distribute works in any online website for any non-commercial purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship and ownership of the rights. The journal also permits the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal non-commercial use under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 License.</p> <p>In case of JAHM does not publish said work, the author(s) will be so notified and all rights assigned hereunder will be given back to the author(s).</p> <p>All accepted works should not be published anywhere without prior written permission from JAHM. The author(s) hereby declare that they are sole author(s) of the work, that all authors have contributed and agree with the content and conclusions of the work, that the work is original, and does not infringe upon any copyright, propriety, or personal right of any third party, and that no part of it nor any work has been submitted to another journal.</p> Systematic review on efficacy of various Pratisarneeya Kshar application in Ayurveda for the management of hemorrhoids w.s.r. size reduction of pile mass <p><strong>Background</strong>: <em>"Mandagni, </em>the prime etiopathogeni factor of<em> Arshas, </em>leads to constipation, initiating the development of <em>Arshas </em>through prolonged contact of accumulated Mala or excretory material with<em> Gudavali. </em>Among the available treatment modalities<em>, Kshara karma </em>stands out for its convenience, easy adaptability, cost-effectiveness, and curative results. Within this para-surgical approach, various forms of external<em> Kshara </em>application, such as<em> Ksharasutra </em>Ligation (KSL) and<em> Pratisarneeya kshar, </em>are employed to treat<em> Arsha. </em>While <em>Ksharasutra ligation </em>is a surgical procedure<em>, Pratisarneeya kshar </em>involves local application and exhibits effectiveness with a straightforward procedure. Numerous studies on<em> Pratisarneeya kshar </em>have been conducted<em>."</em><strong>Objectives:</strong> This study aims to investigate the impact of various types of <em>Pratisarniya kshara</em> on Haemorrhoids. <strong>Methods and Materials</strong>: The materials were gathered from classical Ayurvedic literature, various magazines, and research journals.<strong> Results:</strong> <em>Pratisaraneeya Kshara</em> application demonstrates high efficacy in reducing the size of pile mass. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Despite recent advancements, these invented techniques exhibit certain limitations and have not been proven entirely free from post-operative complications. This underscores the need for a new and improved treatment that is devoid of complications, ensures a faster cure, and proves economically superior.</p> Prithviraj Patil Copyright (c) 2024 Prithviraj Patil 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 12 3 Medicinal Queen Herb of Ayurveda: Tulsi (Holy Basil) <p>Tulsi are used for thousands of years in Indian culture for its remarkable healing properties. Importance of Tulsi is mentioned in ancient Ayurveda text book. Holy basil is highly versatile in properties and uses for body and mind. Indian have always considered the plant sacred because Tulsi is the sacred plant dearer to lord Vishnu. According to Ayurveda, the Tulsi plant is the Queen of all plants. Tulsi are symbolizes for purity. It is considered as holy plant in the Indian subcontinent. The bushy plant of Tulsi has a unique fragrance and distinct taste. The Tulsi plant is a staple in mostly households and also medicinal herb is potent.</p> <p>For over the centuries Tulsi (the queen herb) has been known for own remarkable curative properties. Modern scientific research offers impressive evidence that Tulsi reduces stress, enhances stamina, relieves inflammation, lowers cholesterol, eliminates toxins, protects against radiation, prevents gastric ulcers, lowers fevers, improves digestion and provides a rich supply of antioxidants and other nutrients. Tulsi is especially effective in supporting the heart, blood vessels, liver and lungs and also regulates blood pressure and blood sugar. Tulsi improves the body's overall defense mechanism including its ability to fight viral diseases. Tulsi is such a potent herb that it positively impacts the entire human body. The herb not only heals the body but also replenishes the soul of the person.</p> VD. PANKAJ KUMAR SINGH SINGH LALIMA SINGH PROF. MITHILESH VERMA PROF. P. C. CHAUDHARY Copyright (c) 2024 VD. PANKAJ KUMAR SINGH SINGH, LALIMA SINGH, PROF. MITHILESH VERMA, PROF. P. C. CHAUDHARY 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 12 3 An update on current diagnostic tools in Anorectal disorders <p>Anorectal emergencies comprise a wide variety of diseases that share common and overlapping symptoms, i.e., anorectal pain or bleeding , some of the them could be life-threatening and might require proper diagnosis and immediate management. It is well known that an incorrect diagnosis/delayed diagnosis is frequent for anorectal diseases leading to an impaired outcome. This article aims to improve the knowledge and the awareness on diagnostic tools , useful for every physician dealing with Anorectal emergencies.</p> Dr Anandakumar PB Copyright (c) 2024 Dr Anandakumar PB 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 12 3 Takra kalpana for health maintenance- A Scientific Review. <p><em>Ayurveda</em> <em>Samhitas</em> are not only the <em>Aushadha Granthas</em> but also the encyclopaedia, as they include everything relevant. In <em>Ayurveda</em>, ‘<em>Ahara Kalpana</em>’ is considered as more competent than the <em>Aushadha Dravya</em>, as it is the basis of both health and disease. That's why <em>Ahara</em> is considered as <em>Prana</em> (life). <em>Ayurveda</em> states that the importance of <em>Agni </em>(digestive fire) through its compendium is to keep the body in healthy condition. <em>Agni</em>, if disturbed, it may create many kinds of disorders. <em>Takra </em>(buttermilk) acts as primary digestive aid for the disease associated with <em>Agni. Takra</em> is one of the <em>Ahara Dravya</em> with lots of medicinal properties. <em>Takra</em> indicated in various diseases like <em>Grahani, Arsha, Atisara </em>etc., as a <em>Pathya, Anupana</em> or single drug. The presence of sphingolipids, lactoferrins, caseins, good qualities of proteins, various vitamins etc., which are easily digestible have been detected in buttermilk. All these explain the mechanism and action of buttermilk. A person who consumes <em>Takra</em> never suffers from any disease and there is no recurrence of disease treated with <em>Takra</em>. It alleviates the hundred disorders. There is no remedy better than <em>Takra</em> for the 80 types of <em>Vataja and 20 </em>types of<em> Kaphaja Vyadhi</em>. Thus, we can call it ‘Panacea’ and ‘Nectar’ for its utility in innumerable diseases. It acts as <em>Rasayana</em> and helps to slow down the ageing process like a magical elixir. "<em>Takra</em> is easily palatable which can be used for prevention as well as treatment of diseases. Hence fulfils the principles of <em>Ayurveda</em>.</p> Shikha Kumari Copyright (c) 2024 Shikha Kumari 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 12 3 The Tridosha concept: A comprehensive study from the perspective of modern science <p><em>Tridosha Siddhanta</em> is the fundamental principle of <em>Ayurveda</em> and is derived from <em>Panchamahabhuta</em>. <em>Tridosha</em> is the vital substance, which represents multitudinous events like <em>Dharana</em>, <em>Poshana</em>, <em>Chalana</em> etc. The equilibrium of <em>Tridosha</em> (<em>Vata</em>, <em>Pitta</em>, <em>Kapha</em>) is very essential to maintain the homeostasis of the body as the Universe is governed by the three vital forces i.e. air, sun, and moon. In a single cell <em>Vata</em>, <em>Pitta</em>, and <em>Kapha</em> perform the function of <em>Gati </em>(movement), <em>Pakti</em> (transformation or metabolism) and <em>Shakti</em> (defence), which is also applicable to the whole organism. The article is dedicated to<em> Dosha</em> and its role in managing a living body suitably. There is a unique concept of mutual interdependence among <em>Dosha</em>, <em>Dhatu</em> and <em>Mala</em>. As these are the main building blocks of the body. <em>Triguna, Dhatu, Prakruti, Avasthapaka, Agni, Kostha, Sharirika Avastha, Ahara Avastha </em>and<em> Vyadhi</em> are the factors that have strong inter-relationship with <em>Tridosha</em>. When there is a fluctuation in the state of balanced <em>Tridosha</em> i.e. <em>Dosha</em>-<em>Vaishamya</em> results to disease formation. The principles of <em>Ayurveda</em> are not only to cure disease but also to prevent human beings from all types of miseries. For early diagnosis, one must know the causes, signs, symptoms, mechanisms (<em>Samprapti</em>) and stage (<em>Kriya-Kaala</em>) of the disease. Treatment of the disease is mainly two types viz. <em>Samshodhana</em> and <em>Samshamana</em>. The <em>Samshodhana</em> therapy treats the diseases at their fundamental causes when administered in appropriate <em>Kaala</em>.</p> Lipsa Acharya Copyright (c) 2024 Lipsa Acharya 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 12 3 Deciphering the Physiology of Nidra: A Comprehensive Review of its States of Consciousness <p>Sleep is crucial for maintaining overall health and wellbeing. It plays vital role in various physiological and cognitive functions. As per Ayurvedic sciences, <em>Nidra</em> is one among the three pillars of life<sup>1</sup> and also <em>Adharaneeya vega<sup>2</sup></em>. <em>Nidra</em> is one which helps to attain longevity, memory, intelligence and freedom from disease, youthfulness, excellence of lustre, complexion, voice, optimum development of physique and sense organs<sup>3</sup>. Inappropriate sleep causes disease that could be physical disease or psychosomatic disorder. As per <em>Mandukya Upanishad</em>, the states of consciousness are <em>Jagruta Avastha, Swapna Avastha, Sushupta Avastha</em> and <em>Thuriya</em> and through proper understanding of these states one can conclude the real definition of <em>Nidra</em> is <em>Sushupta Avastha, </em>which will help the body and mind to reset, repair and regenerate.</p> soujanya g s Copyright (c) 2024 soujanya g s 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 12 3 Ayurvedic management of PCOS: A case study <p>Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome is a relatively common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age group. It is found in around 70% of women who have ovulation difficulties leading to infertility. Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common metabolic and reproductive disorders among women of reproductive age. Women suffering from PCOS present with a collection of symptoms associated with menstrual dysfunction and androgen excess. PCOS women may be at increased risk of multiple morbidities, including obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes mellitus, chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism, psychological disorders, and infertility. A case 24-year-old female suffering from PCOS reported was treated successfully at <em>Ayurveda</em> Hospital within 3 months by various <em>Ayurveda</em> medicine and <em>panchakarma</em> procedures. The improvement is evident from the regularity of the menstrual cycle and also from the ultrasonography (USG) reports.</p> <p> </p> SHEETAL WAGH Copyright (c) 2024 SHEETAL WAGH 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 12 3 Diabetic foot gangrene - A case study <p>Diabetic foot is a major public health issue which may lead to leg amputation and thus resulting in disability, reduction in the quality of life and high treatment cost. Non healing ulcer turning into gangrene is a common consequence of diabetic foot. Thus, saving the limb and healing of the leg ulcer are the major challenges faced in case of diabetic foot disease. In this case study, Conservative Ayurveda surgical management was followed in the case of diabetic foot gangrene.</p> <p>A 60 year old female patient, a known case of diabetes mellitus since three years presented with sudden onset of blackish discoloration, pus discharge in the left foot since two weeks. She was diagnosed as diabetic gangrene of left foot. She was advised amputation of foot by 3 contemporary surgeons.</p> <p>Patient had uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and sepsis, which was effectively managed. Once the patient was hemodynamically stable, amputation of left great toe and debridement of left foot ulcer was done.</p> <p>Following this treatment, extensive diabetic foot ulcer healed with formation of healthy granulation tissue with the help of internal medications and local wound care. Complete ulcer healing was noted in a span of four months without any complications, conservative Ayurveda Surgical intervention has proven very helpful to save the foot and complete healing of the ulcer in this case study.</p> Dr.Vidhya Menon Sudeepa Gururaja D Ramesh G Copyright (c) 2024 Dr.Vidhya Menon, Dr. Sudeepa, Dr. Gururaja.D, Dr. Ramesh G 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 12 3 Ayurvedic approach in the management of Hepatitis: A case report <p>Hepatitis is the commonest of viral infection preceding to damage the hepatocytes and progress to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Hepatitis prodrome symptoms includes anorexia, nausea, vomiting, malaise, jaundice. Here, a case report of 17- year- old male patient presented with symptoms pain in abdomen, yellowish micturition, poor appetite, generalized weakness. He was diagnosed with Hepatitis B by laboratory findings and clinical presentation.&nbsp; Ayurvedic medications (<em>Phaltrikadi kwath, Arogyavardhini vati, Syp AmlycureDS, Chitrakadi vati, Pippali churna</em> etc) was given in the management of Hepatitis B (~<em>Yakrit sthotha</em> and <em>Kamala) </em>for the period of 88 days and still on follow up. An effective outcome in the management of Hepatitis was observed in reduction of symptoms and diagnostically by HBsAg negative, Sr.Bilirubin Total (decreased from7.46mg/dl to 0.88mg/dl, SGPT (decreased from 1082 U/L to 23.9 U/L), SGOT (decreased from 1240 U/L to 21.7 U/L ).</p> Sushant Kumar Sahoo Dr. Shreya Joshi Copyright (c) 2024 Dr. Shreya Joshi 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 12 3 Revolutionizing Education: Crafting a Progressive Teaching Methodology for Ayurveda Undergraduate Courses <p>In the realm of education, the teaching methodology employed plays a pivotal role in shaping the future practitioners of any field. Ayurveda, being a venerable science with roots deeply embedded in tradition, is ripe for a transformative teaching approach that marries ancient wisdom with contemporary educational practices.&nbsp;The traditional guru-shishya parampara (teacher-student tradition) has been the cornerstone of Ayurvedic education. While the essence of this sacred relationship must be preserved, there is a pressing need to integrate modern teaching methods into Ayurveda undergraduate courses. Embracing innovation, integrating technology, fostering interdisciplinary collaboration, and emphasizing practical experiences will not only elevate the quality of education but also empower the next generation of Ayurvedic practitioners to navigate the complexities of modern healthcare with confidence and competence. It is through such progressive educational approaches that the timeless wisdom of Ayurveda can be seamlessly woven into the fabric of contemporary healthcare practices. This editorial explores the imperative of evolving teaching methodologies to enhance the learning experience for aspiring Ayurvedic practitioners.</p> Vasant Patil Reena Kulkarni Copyright (c) 2024 Vasant Patil 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 12 3 Analyzing the Three Stages of Sneha Paka in Ksheershatpala Ghrita: An Experimental Study Using Modern Analytical Tools <p><strong>Introduction</strong>- Sneha Paka is a pharmaceutical process to prepare oleaginous medicaments from the substances taken in specific proportion. Standardization of its three stages viz. Mridu, Madhyam and Khar Paka is imperative to establish classical preparatory methods and<br />examination techniques in more efficient way. Hence, proper scientific validation by<br />pharmaceutical and analytical study should be done and documented. </p> <p><strong>Method</strong>- The present study was carried out to differentiate the stages of Sneha Paka i.e. Mridu Paka, Madhyam Paka and Khar Paka in Ksheershatpal Ghrita (KSG) on the basis of classical and modern parameters, namely Paka Pariksha, organoleptic characters, physico- chemical parameters and chromatography.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>- pH of all the samples were mild acidic. Sp. Gravity of Mridu Paka, Madhyam Paka and<br />Khar Paka are 0.910, 0.908 and 0.911 respectively. Loss on drying obtained is 0.0% for all the<br />three samples. Iodine value obtained is 50.28, 17.65 and 18.97 respectively. Not much variation is observed in the Refractive Index of the samples. Saponification value of Mridu Paka is highest. Acid value and peroxide value of Khar Paka is more than the other two. Free fatty acid present is 2.28, 3.39 and 2.85 respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>- Thus an attempt has been made to create comparative database of the three<br />stages of Sneha Paka with the help of modern analytical methods. It can be concluded that<br />there were minimal comparative differences found among them but Madhyam Paka showed<br />better results from standardization point of view.</p> Shikha Yadav Copyright (c) 2024 Shikha Yadav 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 12 3 Pre-clinical appraisal of Panchashirisha Agada for anti-microbial activity - An in-vitro trial <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The continuous emergence of multidrug resistance microbes and fungus and negative impact of synthetic preservatives have led to an increased interest in the use of plant extract as alternative antimicrobial agents. In the present investigation antimicrobial activity of <em>Ayurvedic</em> formulation <em>Panchashirisha agada</em> has been evaluated against human pathogenic bacteria and fungus. The drug <em>Shirisha</em> (<em>Albizia lebeck </em>Benth) is the major constituent in <em>Panchashirisha agada</em>. The drug <em>Shirisha</em> (<em>Albizia lebeck</em> Benth) is having potent antimicrobial activity and is proven by many research studies. The drug is mentioned in <em>charaka samhita</em> as best <em>vishagna</em>, antidote in <em>Ayurveda. </em><strong>Aims and Objective:</strong> 1) Phytochemical analysis of <em>Panchashirisha agada</em> 2) To evaluate anti-microbial activity of <em>Panchashirisha agada. </em><strong>Methodology: </strong>Analysis of antibacterial activity of extract is determined by using Agar well diffusion technique for following organisms <em>S. aureus, S.pyogens, E.coli, P.aeroginosa</em>. Determination of antifungal activity is done by using cup plate method and minimum inhibition concentration for organism Candida albicans and Aspergillus. <strong>Result:</strong> The result from this study indicated that <em>S. pyogens</em> was the most sensitive bacteria to the <em>Panchashirisha agada </em>extract with lowest MIC concentration 50mgl/ml. The <em>Panchashirisha agada</em> extract didn’t show any inhibition against <em>Candida albicans</em> and <em>aspergillus</em>. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study revealed that the <em>Panchashirisha agada</em> possess antibacterial activity in a dose dependent manner. The antimicrobial property may be due to presence of several saponins.</p> Dr Priya Patil Mallikarjun Kumbar Copyright (c) 2024 Priya Patil, Mallikarjun Kumbar, Dr. Priya Patil 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 12 3 Phytochemical and chromatographical evaluation of Madanphala (Randia dumetorum Lamk.) from different Desha based on Akashadi Panchamahabhoota <p><strong>Aims &amp; Objective</strong>:- Evaluation of phytochemical and chromatographical constitution of Madanaphala, collected from different desha based on Akashadi mahabhoota. Madanaphala is the best vamana dravya. As per classics the best place to collect these vamana dravya is the land which is predominant of the Agni, Vayu and Akash mahabhoota. In this study we are going to evaluate the phytochemical and chromatographical qualities of the Madanaphala collected from Jangala desha (Kappatagudda) which is the ideal collection area mentioned by Acharya’s for vamana karma and the Madanaphala collected from the Anupa desha(Jamboti).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:-</strong> 2 samples of Madanaphala, collected from the two different desha’s, one sample collected from Kappatagudda region and the other sample collected from Jamboti region. The collected fruits are dried, cleaned, powdered and were analyzed for phytochemical and chromatographical evaluation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:-</strong> The phytochemical analysis of Madanaphala collected from two different region Kappatagudda and Jamboti didn’t show any changes. TLC of both the samples showed the presence of phytochemicals at different Rf values but the sample collected from Kappatagudda has more number of Rf values which indicate presence of more number of phytochemicals than in Madanaphala collected from Jamboti. The standard Rf value of Oleanolic acid is 0.57. In the HTPLC result the nearest Rf value observed was 0.51 which is found in the Madanaphala collected from Kappatagudda, but no nearest Rf value was observed in Madanaphala collected from Jamboti.</p> <p>So we can justify the reference which is explained by our Acharya Sushruta in the context of Bhumipravibhagiyamadhyaya that vamana dravya should be collected from desha predominant of Akash, Vayu and Agni mahabhoota. As our study also showed that Madanaphala collected from Kappatagudda region which is predominant of Agni, Vayu and Akash mahabhoota predominenet is of superior quality than the Madanaphala collectd from Jamboti region having Parthiva and Aap mahabhoota.</p> Manjunath Dundi Madhushree Copyright (c) 2024 Manjunath Dundi, Madhushree C S 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 12 3